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Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of coordinating the information that supports a business’s operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and applications and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted by unexpected failure. It is an integral part of the overall infrastructure of a company that aids in decision-making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that allowed the storage and retrieve huge amounts of data for a wide range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complicated human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data in accordance with a certain scheme, like one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a collection of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about data entities. The most widely used type of database that is currently in use is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It also makes it simpler to update data without the need to change different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support various types of databases, by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level deals with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on the different data models) and may include virtual tables that are computed from generic data in order to improve performance.

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